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Metabolism and Plant Cells
Biology Classwork and Homework - last week of Term 3
T3 HW/CW 5 = 18pts
• Biology book, read through Ch 10 – section 1 … Define/describe RNA, Uracil, transcription, tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, and the “start codon”
• p 212 review questions 1-4
• p212 data lab
• DNA proficiency WS
• Mitosis phases WS (cut and paste, literally)
• P41 draw and caption, p207 contrast w/Replication
• Molecular Genetics vocab
• Proteins video notes
5pts = GSLC Proteins and Firefly
10 pts = Chapter 42 SSt, all MC full sentences, choose 5 for ?2x
- ___ Viruses may not be considered living because they are not made up of cells
- Archea have cells that are most similar to____ Eubacteria.
- Animals are understood to have evolved from the ____ Protozoa.
- The only Protistan group that is capable of autotrophic nutrition is the ____ Protophyta.
- The substance chitin is found in the cell walls of ____ Fungi.
- Similar to Animalia and opposite of Plantae, Fungi have __ heterotrophic nutrition.
- Spiders and fungi share the characteristic of practicing ___ external digestion.
- A plant that is found to be successful in transferring minerals from the soil to its roots will most likely be found to have a good assortment of symbiotic ____ mycorrhizae.
- The structure responsible for providing an embryonic plant with its first source of food is known as the ____ seed.
- The vertebrates all belong to the phylum Chordata, and get that name from the ___ spinal cord.
- The ___Animalia is the only kingdom that has no cell walls.
- Cells that lack membrane-bound organelles are considered ____Prokaryotic .
- If it’s composed of just DNA and a protein coat, it must be a(n) ___Virus_ .
- Protozoa, Protophyta, and Protomycota all belong to the kingdom___Protista_ .
- Some Protista can be considered germs, because they cause illness. This is due to their “body” type, which is__Unicellular.
- Even though clams, snails, and octopus look very different from each other, they all belong to the phylum___Mollusca_ .
- The most primitive animals to have the characteristics of both segmentation and a closed circulatory system are the ____Annelida/Earthworm .
- The starfish and sand dollars belong to the phylum ___Echinodermata because they have radial symmetry and a water-vascular skeleton.
- ___Birds are the living descendants of the dinosaurs.
- The fact that ____Mammals/Birds have insulation and can regulate their own temperature means that they are all warm-blooded.
- On the outside of every is its cell membrane, the liquid inside the cell is its cytoplasm (aka cytosol), all the structures inside a cell are its organelles
- The “oily bag of soup” highlights the importance of the cell membrane in separating the cell from its outside environment
- A small, simple cell with circular DNA and no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles is prokaryotic,
- A complex cell with X-shaped DNA and a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is a eukaryotic cell
- A virus is nucleic acids in a protein coat and cannot perform any cell functions on its own, a cell has a cell membrane and consumes energy to do metabolism to stay alive
- nucleus, coordinates all cell functions
- mitochondria, releases energy in the form of ATP
- chloroplasts do photosynthesis, capturing the energy of the sun and binding it into cellular material
- ribosomes synthesize proteins
- recognize all of the above in an illustration of a cell
- Plant cells can be distinguished from an animal cell diagrams by the presence of a cell wall and central vacuole (the tonoplast)
- selectively permeable means that a cell membrane can regulate what substances can and cannot go in and out of the cell
- Diffusion the typical flow of small, non-polar substances across a membrane from a region of high to low concentration
- Osmosis is the special diffusion of water across a membrane
- The cells of Archae, are always single-celled and have a simple cell wall structure
- The cells of Eubacteria, are always single-celled, have peptidoglycan cell walls
- The cells of Protista, are single-celled or colonial, may or may not have a cell wall, and have X-shaped chromosomes
- All of the above may get their food either as autotrophs or heterotrophs
- Plantae, are strictly autotrophic and are always multicellular, with cell walls of cellulose and lignin
- Fungi are strictly heterotrophic and can be single-celled, colonial, or multicellular, with cell walls of chitin
- Animalia are strictly heterotrophic and are always multicellular, never containing cell walls
- Hooke magnified and named “cells”
- Pasteur disproved the “theory” of spontaneous generation
- Cell theory 1-all organisms are composed of cells 2-cell are self-contained units 3-all cells arise from pre-existing cells
- endoplasmic reticulum channels which guide the alteration of proteins and transport substances within the cell
- vacuole a storage area within the cell
- lysosome an enzyme-containing sac
- Golgi apparatus the organelle that alters proteins, packaged in vesicles, for secretion
- nuclear envelope the barrier that protects the DNA and separates it from the rest of the cell
- nucleolus the bundle of RNA that produces more RNA
- cell wall the outer layer of plant cells, provides rigid, but flexible, support
- centriole sets of microtubules that direct the movement of chromosomes during cell division
- microvilli small projections of the cell membrane that drastically increase the cells’ surface area
- cilia short projections of microtubules that provide mobility to the cell
- flagella long sets of microtubules, powered by mitochondria, that allow a cell to “swim”
- pseudopod extensions of the cell membrane that allow a cell to “crawl”
- The functions of the cell membrane: controlling transport, cell identification, and cell-to-cell communication
- Passive transport the movement of molecules without the need for energy
- Facilitated diffusion the movement of molecules through protein channels without the need for energy
- Active transport expending energy (in the form of ATP) to move large or polar substances through protein channels or against the concentration gradient
- Isotonic condition in which the environment matches that of the cell
- Hypertonic condition in which the environment is more concentrated that inside the cell
- Hypotonic condition in which the environment is less concentrated than inside the cell
- Cells remain the same in isotonic conditions
- Cells shrink in hypertonic conditions
- Cells swell in hypotonic conditions, and may burst if they don’t have a cell wall
In order to receive this credit, you are to complete the following on a clean sheet of paper, stapled to the front of the original…
- Life uses energy to reorganize matter
- Label key points on the pH scale
- Macromolecules: recognize carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and ATP
- Identify enzymes as proteins
- Understand the role charged particles or regions play in chemical reactions
- Discuss the importance of water to sustaining life
- Distinguish between processes (like combustion) that release all of the energy of organic matter very quickly and (cellular respiration and fermentation) processes that release energy slowly enough to be useful to cells/organisms
- Recognize a diagram of ATP and ATP – ADP cycle
- Celebrate ATP
- Distinguish the dual functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
- Recognize the building blocks of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Practice of Science Essentials
- Definition and construction of a testable hypothesis
- Theory as explanation
- Design of a controlled experiment
- Distinguish dependent from independent variable in a controlled experiment
- Qualities of reliable data
- The perspective/gestalt of science research
- The vital role of objective observation in collecting reliable data
- Graphing: Independent and dependent variables on correct axes, labels & units, setting appropriate axis-scales
- The utility of well-designed models
- The 4 qualities of reliable research: replicable, falsifiable, precise, straightforward
- Distinction between precision and accuracy
- The most reliable theories are solidly supported by experimental results from 3+ branches of a science
- Reliable science uses logic to analyze results and meticulously links cause and effect to describe observable relationships
- It’s not a scientific theory if it can’t be modified or disproved by new results. Anecdotes are valuable as observations, but cannot by themselves prove or disprove a theory
- Occam’s razor: All else being held equal, the simplest explanation is usually correct
- Bias: the natural human tendency to wish for desired outcomes, overcome by conducting experiments rigorously and analyzing results honestly