Woodland/Honors Ecology

Welcome to Woodland/Honors Ecology  with MsLevy
llevy@belchertown.org

Our textbook is Oxford Press' Sustaining Life:  How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity, edited by Eric Chivian of Harvard University's Center for Health and the Global Environment
For information  http://chge.med.harvard.edu/index.html  and go to Classroom Education

In the classroom, we also use Readers Digest Guide to North American Wildlife, and
New England Wildlife: Habitat, Natural History, and Distribution

Buds, Leaves and Global Warming Schoolyard Ecology project through Harvard Forest
 http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/schoolyard-lter-program


Honors Ecology summer work ...
 Naturalist Journal  in a bound notebook:
1-    Set-up: set aside the first full page (both sides) as your Table of Contents. Write “Table of Contents” at the top, “page” on the left, and “Title of Activity” in the center.
2-    Number the pages beyond the table of contents.
3-    Label page 1 “Close Observation - _____”, choose a flower or a leaf (the blank), do some homework and make sure it’s not Poison Ivy, and draw it in the center of the page 4-5” tall/wide.  Around the center drawing, do a series of 1-2” details of the edges, vein patterns, underside and stem.  For each drawing, write 2-3 descriptive terms. Record the title and page number in your table of contents. ~10-15min
4-    Page 2 and 3: “Long-term Study - ___ - Early Summer”  Choose a location that you will be able to return to throughout the summer and school year.  Give the location a name to include in the title (the blank).  Be sure the location includes at least one tree and gives you a clear view of the top of the tree(s) and its surroundings.  Label the 2-page spread with the date, temperature, the condition of the sky and the level of wind, plus the location.  Spend 10 minutes drawing the area across the entire width of the 2 pages.  Do not worry about your artistic ability, focus on the proportions - heights, widths, spans – to produce a scaled drawing (think city skyline).  Fill in details and color.  Write in a few descriptive details.  Fill in enough detail so that you can easily recognize the area for the next observation, especially where you’re sitting.  Record the title and page number in your table of contents. ~20-30min
5-    Over the summer, go back to the location 2 more times, reserving the next 2 2-page spreads for these observations.  Title the page, recording the conditions (date, temp, sky, wind). Do 5 minute drawings (in color or not), writing 3-4 sentence caption capturing the details of the place and/or changes or 15 minute drawings with a shorter caption. Record the title and page number in your table of contents. ~20-30min each
6-    “Close Observation – ____” A bug (insect, spider, pillbug, etc).  Locate a very cooperative bug, a dead bug, or put the bug inside a clear bag/container.  Draw, describe.   Record the title and page number in your table of contents. ~15min
7-    “Study site – mid-distance observation”  Choose a 2-3’ wide/tall area to draw and label in detail.  Record date, temp, sky, wind and the title and page number in your table of contents. ~10-15min
8-    Do 2 more Close Observations of items/organisms, with a variety of animals, plants, fungi, or their parts with a 4-5” drawing surrounded by 1-2” details.  ~10min each

9-    Go to a new location (aren’t you going on vacation sometime this summer?!) pick something to draw and describe or write a poem or lyrical prose.  Record date, temp, sky, wind and the title and page number in your table of contents.


Woodland Ecology 2 Final Exam Review … Key   
study for 2 hours  Test  May 26-29th                                         

1-Classification
 Vocab: species, population, fitness, adaptation, cladogram, derived character, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, consumer, producer, porifera, cnidaria, nematoda, platyhelminthes, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata, chordata
a)Classification hierarchy is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
b)living things respond, use energy, change, reproduce, are made of cell
                c)species is a group of organisms capable of successful reproduction
d)the 6 kingdoms are Eubacteria, Archea, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
e)eubacteria and archea are prokaryotic, the rest of the kingdoms are eukaryotic
f)eubacteria and archea are all single-celled & prokaryotic, they can be producers or consumers
g)Protista are single-celled, the rest of the kingdoms have multicellular species
h)Protista can be producers (phytoplankton) or consumers(zooplankton)
i)Plantae are capable of photosynthesis, they are the main producers in terrestrial ecosystems
j)fungi are heterotrophic consumers that serve ecosystems as decomposers
k)animals are motile and are consumers

2-Chordates  
Vocab:  agnatha, chondrictheyes, osteichtheyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves, mammalia 
a)the 4 characteristics of chordata … notochord, dorsal nerve cord, gill slits, post-anal tail
b) vertebrae and the spinal cord permit rapid motion and support of large bodies in the water and on land

3-Fish 
 Vocab: gills, lateral line, operculum, swim bladder, indeterminate growth, marine, brackish, benthic, pelagic, intertidal
a)Jawless fish are the most primitive
b)chondrichtheyes have cartilage skeletons, are sharks and rays
c)osteichtheyes have bony skeletons, are the most familiar of fish, tuna, trout, seahorse
d) water regions are defined by depth (benthic vs pelagic) and salt-content(aquatic vs marine vs brackish)

4-Amphibians  
Vocab: congress, cloaca, metamorphosis, vernal pool, amphiplexus
a)Anura are the frogs and toads
b)Urodela are the salamanders and newts
c)Apoda are legless and not native to New England
d)all amphibians depend on two habitats and so need to migrate
e)the balance of energy output for egg production vs parenting, most amphibians spend more energy on egg production and less on parenting
f)the frog tongue – attached to the front of the mouth
g)salamander larvae have gills

5-Reptiles  
Vocab: ectothermic, amniotic, squamata, chelonian, crocodilian, scutes, plastron, carapace, venom
a)Adaptations for terrestrial life include lungs, strong bones and hip joint,  watertight skin and the amniotic egg
b)double-loop circulation = separate circulation for the blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body
c)Jacobson’s and pit organs for smell and infrared detection
d)ranges of species are limited on the northern edge by temperature and on the southern edge by water

6-Birds and mammals  
a)birds
1. are the last living descendants of the dinosaurs
2. birds have hollow bones
3.bird bodies and feathers are aerodynamic
4. bird eggs are amniotic and calcified
b)mammals
1.have fur and mammary glands to produce milk
2.mammal offspring develop internally (most with a placenta) and require lots of parental care
3.monotremes (platypus) lay eggs; marsupials (opossum, kangaroo) develop in a pouch

7-Pond life   
a)the organisms in a body of water depend just as much on the land surrounding the water as on the water itself
b) frogs and salamanders lay their eggs near the surface of the water
c) frog and salamander larvae eat and are eaten by insect larvae
d)amphibian populations can’t easily thrive where there are fish

8-Biodiversity and stewardship   Vocab:  IUCN, endangered, threatened, hotspot, dead zone, genetic variety
a)Earth realms = Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, African, Pacific, Australian
b)plants are primary producers
c)biodiversity is insurance against guaranteed changes in the ecosystem
d) ecosystem services (ie water and air filtration, carbon sequestering, rain and flood management) …may be exceedingly difficult to impossible for humans to replace/reproduce
e)aquatic dead zones = areas where overload of fertilizer and petroleum-based chemicals has reduced the oxygen in the water so much that there is no life there
f) optimal conditions mean extra energy can be devoted to reproduction (and parenting)
f)bioindicator species are sensitive to disturbance and pollutants and therefore markers of the quality/health of an ecosystem

9-Buds, Leaves and Global Warming  
a)      the new leaves of the spring are already housed in the buds that overwinter on deciduous trees
b)      timing of budburst depends first on a cold-bank, then on the right amount of light
c)        buds get puffy before they open up
d)      budburst in Maples happens after the sap runs and the flowers are done blooming
e)       young oaks don’t lose their leaves in the fall
f)       budburst and the emergence of bugs happens at the same time and that’s when the migratory pass through and the resident birds come back
10-2nd grade Lake Wallace field trip
a)      teaching kids about the environment helps build their (and your) sense of place, strengthening the sense of community and commitment to conservation
b)      Once you get to know the surprising number of organisms that live in the water, you get a chance to appreciate the diversity a healthy aquatic ecosystem
c)       The outdoors provides lots of material for inspiration, investigation, imagination and play.
11-Belchertown Ecotourism Council   
a)Belchertown has unique habitats, people from other parts of the country/world would enjoy visiting and seeing our sites
b) landforms and soil types and water availability control what plants can grow in an area
c) the plants in a habitat determine what animals are likely to live there
d) edges between two different types of habitats are places where you’re likely to find more species
12-Endangered Species Project  
a)there are a variety of animals that are considered endangered, threatened, and of special concern in New England, as well as extinct, extirpated and introduced pests
b)not all of those animals in trouble in Mass. are endangered elsewhere
c) each endangered animal represents a (set of) habitat(s) and is a call to us to preserve the land where we find those habitats, not just the animals themselves = stewardship
d)the “message” of your public service message differed from 2 of your classmates’





Endangered Species Project ... start at ...
Massachusetts List of Endangered, Threatened 
and Special Concern Species

http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/species-information-and-conservation/mesa-list/list-of-rare-species-in-massachusetts.html   


Medicinal Plant Project -  Essential Questions
Woodland Ecology first, then Honors Ecology

Woodland
1-Ethnobotany-History
-What culture was the first to recognize its medicinal qualities? How long ago?
-What, if any, rituals or myths are connected to it?
-If the plant is threatened/endangered: is there any controversy or concern about the plant, its habitat or the people who know it best?

2-Environment-Ecology
-What biome does it live in?(*illus) Where in the world can it be found? (*Map)
-What are its plant neighbors/partners? (ie. typical plants in association with it)
-How does it interact with its primary herbivores? Repel, attract, or both?
-What is its status in the wild?  Abundant, or invasive, or common but only in specific habitats,
or of concern, or threatened, or endangered or nearly extinct?

3-Growing requirements-Harvesting
-What animals and/or fungi and/or protistans does it depend on to thrive? 
(pollinators, seed dispersers, symbionts)
-What are the specific conditions it needs to grow? (light, water amount & frequency and/or type, soil type and pH, temperature, heat/cold tolerance, altitude, wind, disturbance)
-Does it demand microhabitat conditions? or access to specific nutrients in the soil?

4-Medicinal-Pharmaceutical
-Does it have an active chemical?(*illus) If yes, what? If no, is the plant considered a “tonic”?
-What are its effects on the human body?  Has scientific testing confirmed its effectiveness? Defend.
-What are the side effects?  Contraindications: when does it do more harm than good?
-How is it prepared for use? (ie. Steeping for tea, poultice, direct, purified in a powder/pill, etc.)
-What company(ies) are currently producing or researching the production of the plant or its active chemical?

Honors
1-Ethnobotany-History
-From whom and How did western medicine first get introduced to this plant and its qualities? 
-What, if any, rituals or myths are connected to it?
-If  threatened/endangered: is there any controversy or concern about the plant, its habitat or the people who know it best?

2-Environment-Ecology
-What biome does it live in?(*illus) Where can it be found … ie the plants’ geodistribution, native Earth realm and altitude  (*Map)
-Does it grow as groundcover, understory, mid-level, canopy? Does it demand microhabitat conditions?
-What is its niche in its native habitat?  In other areas?
-What is its status in the wild?  Abundant, or invasive, or common but only in specific habitats, or of concern, or threatened, or endangered or nearly extinct in the wild?

3-Growing requirements-Harvesting
-What animals and/or fungi and/or protistans does it depend on to thrive? (pollinators, seed dispersers, symbionts)
-What are the specific conditions it needs to grow? (light, water amount & frequency and/or type, soil type and pH, temperature, heat/cold tolerance, altitude, wind, disturbance)
-How easily can it be cultivated (farmed)?

4-Medicinal-Pharmaceutical
-Where in the plant is the active chemical found?  Does the plant produce the chemical continuously or only at certain times of year?
-What are its effects on the human body?  Has scientific testing confirmed its effectiveness? Defend.
-What are the side effects?  Contraindications & Drug interactions:  in combination with what drugs would this plant cause synergistic effects that would do more harm than good?
-How is it prepared for use? (ie. Steeping for tea, poultice, direct, purified in a powder/pill, etc.)
-What company(ies) are currently producing or researching the production of the plant or its active chemical or a synthetic version of the active chemical(s)?


Medicinal Plant List

Agrimony, Cocklebur
Aletris Farinosa - True Unicorn Root,
Colic Root
American Mandrake, May Apple
Angelica Venenosa
Bee Balm  Monarda,
Bergamot
Birth Root, Trilliums
Blackberry
Black Cohosh
Black Walnut
Bloodroot
Blue Cohosh
Blue Lobelia  Indian Tobacco
Blue Vervain
Burdock
Butterfly Weed Pleurisy Root
California Poppy
(Cannabis not allowed)
Catnip
Chickweed
Chamomile
German Chamomile
Chinchona sp, quinine
Cinnamon
Cinquefoil Five-finger-grass
Cleavers
Cocoa, chocolate
Coffee arabica
Damiana
Dandelion
Downy Wood Mint
Ephedra American Ma-Huang
Evening Primrose
Everlasting Rabbit Tobacco
Feverfew
Garlic
Ginkgo biloba
Ginseng
Goat's Rue
Goldenseal
Greek Valerian  Jacob's Ladder
Ground-Ivy
Heal-All All-Heal, Self heal
Hepatica, Liverwort
Homalanthus tree sp, Samoa
Jack-in-the-Pulpit Indian Turnip
Japanese Honeysuckle  
Jewelweed Touch-me-nots
Joe Pye Weed Gravel Root
Lemon Balm Melissa, Balm
Lyre-leaved sage
Mallows
May Apple
Mistletoe
Morning Glory
Mugwort
Mullein
Nutmeg
Passionflower Maypop,  Apricot Vine Perilla Beefsteak plant
Pinkroot Indian Pink
Plantain
Pokeweed
Prunella Vulgaris
Red Clover
Sassafras
Skullcap
Soapwort
Solanaceae sp
Solomon's Seal
Spearmint
St. John's Wort
Stoneroot
Trout Lily
Usnea
Violet
Violet Wood Sorrel
Watercress
Wild Carrot Queen-Anne's lace
Wild Geranium Cranesbill
Wild Ginger
Wild Mint Mountain Mint
Wild Quinine Missouri snakeroot
Wild Rose, Hips
Wild Yam
Willow, Salix genus
Wood Betony Lousewort
Yarrow Milfoil
Yew
Ylang-ylang


Most of the above from http://www.altnature.com/gallery/   Alternative Nature Online Herbal
Native American Ethnobotany database,   maintained by UMichigan – Dearborn College http://herb.umd.umich.edu/
Jim Duke, Green Pharmacy Garden  http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/


Some Tree locations around town

·        BHS around the school – Red/Norway Maple, Boxelder, Pear, Dogwood, Black/Ornamental Cherry, White/Burr/Red/Scarlet Oak, Bigtooth/Quaking Aspen, Pignut Hickory, Black Locust, Smooth Sumac, White/Yellow/River Birch, Patriot Elm
·        BHS by base/softball fields & into BEF –Red & Black & Red/Black Hybrid Oak & Bigtooth Aspen &Hickory, Yellow Birch, possibly Witchhazel
·        BHS under the Library overhang - Redbud
·        BHS pond – Willow & Hickory & sumac & hawthorne & white & yellow birch
·        Jabish Middle School – Tuliptree, also around the back of the Senior Center
·        Along the fence by the SRE playground-pavilion – Chestnut & Quaking Aspen & Black Cherry
·        SRE driveway across from DD drive-through – Freeman Maple
·        Swift River Elementary & Stop n Shop – Honey Locust
·        In front of B’town Day School – weeping something, willow or cherry? (be the first to identify and show MsLevy a sample for extra credit)
·        Across from Checkers – purple-leaf something?… ornamental cherry or maple
·        Bank on the town green – gingko, with a Catalpa right next to it
·        Firefighters Museum – Willow and Little-leaf Linden
·        In front of the Police Station – Hackberry
·        In front of the Tadgell building – Kousa Dogwood, behind are Apple trees
·        Lake Wallace – Witchhazel & Beech & Chestnut & Black Birch & BlueBeech & White/Green Ash
·        In front of anybody’s house, dark green-to-purple maple – Norway Maple, Little Leaf Linden (they have a distinct pyramid shape)
·        Along the Swift River – Sycamore, probably Basswood
·        Bridge across Fort River just past Rolling Green in Amherst – Silver Maple & Sycamore





Honors Option for Woodland Ecology
1st set of instructions … more to come
let me know by Wednesday, September 11th


Each quarter there will be …
Term Assignment: you can skip or be excused from 2 homework assignments in order to be sure you have enough time to complete the Term Assignment
Honors questions for Reading Guide or more in-depth article for Reading
An Honors section for each unit exam/test
Leadership: you act as a leader in your class, modeling positive, engaged participation in group and class activities, making yourself useful in managing our BLG data and setting up/breaking down activities that involve materials


Term 1 Term Assignment:  Habitat
Prepare a 10 minute presentation with visuals, either electronic or poster-board, to 
teach the class about a Belchertown habitat

Term 2 Term Assignment:  Individual projects
Propose a project that has the potential to be shared with or involves community participation… BHS, the elementary schools, or beyond.  Select one project from those offered on the Honors cards, or come up with your own idea.  Submit the proposal by the 2nd week of the term … must be approved before you begin.